Participant-Directed Services (PDS), also known as “self-directed services” or “self-directed care,” have been an option in Medicaid, therefore eligible for federal matching funds, since the 1990s.  Major growth occurred in states using the PDS model when, in 2001, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid revised the 1915 (c) Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS) waiver application to include participant directed options.  Currently, all states have at least one program that allows for self-direction.  These programs serve people across the disability spectrum including people with intellectual and developmental disability (I/DD) and people who receive aging services.  Though self-directed models of service are widely used across the United States, one population has been largely absent from receiving self-directed services, people with a primary diagnosis of mental illness.  The PDSS Coalition is working to change that.

Sustainable Self-Directed Care in Pennsylvania’s Behavioral Health System

Pennsylvania Self-Directed Care

Consumer Recover Investment Fund — SDC Project